Paddle weed; in Japanese: kajime, noro-kajime.
Ecklonia cava is found in warm, temperate subtidal waters. The waters off the coast of China, Japan, and Korea are more commonly associated with Ecklonia cava, but it is also grows in the coastal waters of Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. Ecklonia cava grows in large underwater forests on rocky substrates near the shoreline.
Phlorotannins including dieckol, bieckol, phlorofucofuroeckol, and fucodiphlorethol; sterols, including fucosterol, ergosterol, and cholesterol.
Ecklonia cava is a species of brown algae that grows up to 9 or 10 feet long. It attaches itself by multiple rootlike structures to subtidal rocky substrates in warm waters in coastal Pacific areas. Each plant consists of one long stalk, usually 3 to 6 feet in length, with multiple blades growing from the stalk to form a single clump at the top, resembling a palm tree.
This edible seaweed has historically been an important part of the Japanese and Korean traditional diet. It is harvested (either mechanically or by divers) in Japan, Korea, and China. It is used not only as a food, but also in agriculture as both a fertilizer and in animal feed.
It is only recently that Ecklonia cava has been the subject of research for its potential health benefits. This brown algae is noted for its phlorotannins, which are unique polyphenolic compounds found only in marine plants. Ecklonia cava is believed to have more phlorotannins than any other brown algae.1 In both in vitro and animal studies, the body of evidence is growing for the potential health benefits of Ecklonia cava.
Ecklonia cava shows great promise as a natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. This seaweed’s antioxidant potential is not limited to just one of its compounds. In one study, a constituent of E. cava known as crude polyphenolic fractions, or CphF, was shown to have more antioxidant potential than synthetic antioxidants BHA and BHT.2 In another study, one of its phlorotannins known as LAD103 was evaluated using common antioxidant assays and was shown to be of potential help in osteoarthritis.3 Yet another experiment showed that bieckol, another phlorotannin, is a more potent antioxidant than ascorbic acid.4 Phlorotannins such as those found in Ecklonia have been demonstrated to inhibit inflammation along a variety of pathways.5
This seaweed’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits extend to cardiovascular health as well. Dieckol, a phlorotannin in Ecklonia cava, acts as a natural ACE inhibitor, which has the potential to lower blood pressure.6 Research also suggests that the polyphenolics in Ecklonia can protect against damaging oxidative processes in blood vessels.7
In conditions associated with the immune system and allergic response, Ecklonia also shows promise. In mouse studies, this seaweed increased proliferation of infection-fighting white blood cells and inhibited inflammation.8 It also inhibits the processes that are associated with asthma attacks,9 and diminishes allergic response to IgE allergens.10
Ecklonia cava experiments with cancer cells are encouraging. In one study, researchers looked at a component of E. cava extract, CphF (crude polyphenolic fractions). Their research showed that CphF, which was especially effective at inhibiting the growth of mouse colon cancer cells, has potential as an anti-proliferative agent.11 Two different studies have found that extract of Ecklonia cava may help prevent the spread of cancer cells by inhibiting MMPs, a type of enzyme.12,13 In another study, polyphenols from Ecklonia cava reduced the number of skin cancer tumors in mice by acting as COX-2 inhibitors.14
Studies involving the nervous system and brain have also been conducted. In one study, which has implications for inflammatory neurodegenerative disease, mouse microglia were studied. Ecklonia cava inhibited inflammation of these immune system cells in the nervous system.15 In vivo rat experiments show that Ecklonia cava can protect brain function from injury, and in vitro experiments reveal that its polyphenols can protect against oxidative stress.16 In mouse studies, the phlorotannins in E. cava also boosted memory and cognitive function.17
Diabetes researchers have also looked at Ecklonia cava. Beta cells from rat pancreas exposed to glucose were protected against its damaging effects when treated with Ecklonia.18 In another study, fibrosis was induced in liver cells by exposing them to glucose; Ecklonia cava exerted a protective effect.19
Ecklonia cava has various other potential benefits as well. Because it has the ability to suppress inflammation, suppress enzymes that break down collagen, and promote mineralization, it may be helpful in treatment of chronic joint diseases.20 Mouse experiments in which dieckol from E. cava extract was used suggest that this substance may be useful in promoting hair growth.21 Ecklonia cava may even be useful in the fight against HIV, which can be extremely difficult to treat because the virus can infiltrate the host’s DNA. In an in vitro study it was demonstrated that bieckol, a phlorotannin, inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, one of the ways in which the virus affects human DNA.22
1 Heo, S.J., et al. Antioxidant activities of enzymatic extracts from brown seaweeds. Bioresource Technology. 2005. 96, 1613–1623.
2 Athukorala, Y., et al. Antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of an enzymatic hydrolysate from brown alga, Ecklonia cava. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2006. 44, 1065-1074.
3 Shin, H.C. et al. An antioxidative and antiinflammatory agent for potential treatment of osteoarthritis from Ecklonia cava. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 2006. 29 (2), 165-171.
4 Kang, S.M., et al. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of a new compound, pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6′-bieckol isolated from brown algae, Ecklonia cava. Nutrition Research and Practice. 2011. 5(6), 495-502.
5 Shibata, T., et al. Inhibitory effects of brown algal phlorotannins on secretory phospholipase A2s, lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases. Journal of Applied Phycology. 2003. 15, 61-66.
6 Wijesinghe, W., et al. Effect of phlorotannins isolated from Ecklonia cava on angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Nutrition Research and Practice. 2011. 5 (2), 93-100.
7 Kang, K., et al. Antioxidative properties of brown algae polyphenolics and their perspectives as chemopreventive agents against vascular risk factors. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 2003. 26 (4), 286-293.
8 Ahn, G., et al. Immunomodulatory effects of an enzymatic extract from Ecklonia cava on murine splenocytes. Marine Biotechnology (NY). 2008. 10 (3), 278-289.
9 Kim, S.K., et al. Effects of Ecklonia cava ethanolic extracts on airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in a murine asthma model: role of suppressor of cytokine signaling. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy. 2008. 62 (5), 289-296.
10 Shim, S.Y., et al. Ecklonia cava extract suppresses the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fc epsilon RI expression. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2009. 47 (3), 555-560.
11 Athukorala, Y., et al. Antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of an enzymatic hydrolysate from brown alga, Ecklonia cava. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2006. 44, 1065-1074.
12 Chen Zhang, et al. Dieckol from Ecklonia cava Regulates Invasion of Human Fibrosarcoma Cells and Modulates MMP-2 and MMP-9 Expression via NF-κB Pathway. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011, Article ID 140462.
13 Kim, M.M., et al. Phlorotannins in Ecklonia cava extract inhibit matrix metalloproteinase activity. Life Sciences. 2006. 79, 1436-1443.
14 Hwang, H., et al. Photochemoprevention of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice by brown algae polyphenols. International Journal of Cancer. 2006. 119, 2742-2749.
15 Jung, W.K., et al. Ecklonia cava ethanolic extracts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV2 microglia via the MAP kinase and NF-kB pathways. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2008. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.11.041
16 Kim, J.H., et al. Protective efficacy of an Ecklonia cava extract used to treat transient focal ischemia of the rat brain. Anatomy and Cell Biology. 2012. 45, 103-113.
17 Myung, C.S., et al. Improvement of memory by dieckol and phlorofucofuroeckol in ethanol-treated mice: possible involvement of the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 2005. 28 (6), 691-698.
18 Lee, S.H., et al. Dieckol isolated from Ecklonia cava protects against high glucose induced damage to rat insulinoma cells by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 2012. 76 (8), 1445-1451.
19 Yokogawa, K., et al. Inhibitory Effects of Ecklonia cava Extract on High Glucose-Induced Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation. Marine Drugs. 2011. 9, 2793-2808.
20 Ryu, B., et al. Differentiation of human osteosarcoma cells by isolated phlorotannins is subtly linked to COX-2, iNOS, MMPs, and MAPK signaling: implication for chronic articular disease. Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2009. 179 (2-3), 192-201.
21 Kang, Jung-Il, et al. Effect of dieckol, a component of Ecklonia cava, on the promotion of hair growth. International Journal of Molecular Science. 2012. 13, 6407-6423.
22 Ahn, M.J., et al. Inhibition of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Protease by Phlorotannins from the Brown Alga Ecklonia cava. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2004, 27(4), 544-547.
1. Effect of dieckol, a component of Ecklonia cava, on the promotion of hair growth
Kang, J.I., et al. International Journal of Molecular Science. 2012. 13, 6407-6423.
Researchers studied the effects of Ecklonia cava on hair growth. They used an enzymatic extract of E. cava with 35% dieckol, a naturally occurring type of tannin, to culture rodent whiskers. The length of the whiskers increased over a 21-day period. Researchers also applied the extract topically to mice to stimulate hair growth. The result was an increase in the number of specialized cells (called dermal papilla cells) that nourish hair follicles. Compared to other compounds isolated from Ecklonia cava, dieckol was determined to be the most effective substance. It also reduced 5a-reductase activity; this reduction may contribute to hair growth as well. Conclusion: The enzymatic extract from Ecklonia cava may potentially be used as a treatment for hair loss.
2. Antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of an enzymatic hydrolysate from brown alga, Ecklonia cava
Athukorala, Y., et al. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2006. 44, 1065-1074.
In this in vitro study researchers looked at the potential for compounds in Ecklonia cava to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. They used an enzymatic extract of Eckonia cava, along with two of its components, CpoF (crude polysaccharide) and CphF (crude polyphenolic fractions). CphF in particular showed promise. While it had anti-proliferative activity to varying degrees on four different types of cancer cell lines, it was especially effective against mouse colon cancer cells. In addition, CphF displayed strong antioxidant potential, equal to or better than synthetic antioxidants BHA and BHT.
3. An antioxidative and antiinflammatory agent for potential treatment of osteoarthritis from Ecklonia cava
Shin, H.C., et al. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 2006. Vol 29, No 2, 165-171.
Ecklonia cava contains phlorotannins, which are polyphenolic compounds not found in land plants. One of those phlorotannins is LAD103, which researchers studied for its potential benefits in reducing the risk of osteoarthritis. In vitro experiments revealed that LAD103 demonstrates antioxidant activity. (Osteoarthritis involves oxidation at both the onset of the disease and during its progression.) Tests included common antioxidant assays such as DPPH radical scavenging, ferric ion reduction, peroxynitrite scavenging, and LDL oxidation. Based on these experiments, researchers believe, Ecklonia cava extract rich in LAD103 may be useful in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
4. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of a new compound, pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6′-bieckol isolated from brown algae, Ecklonia cava
Kang, S.M., et al. Nutrition Research and Practice. 2011, 5(6), 495-502.
One of the natural compounds in Ecklonia cava, pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6′-bieckol (PPB) has antioxidant properties, according to in vitro studies conducted by South Korean researchers representing several institutions. PPB was studied using a number of common tests to assess antioxidant capability. PPB was most effective against DPPH radicals, with efficacy also demonstrated against alkyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals. Researchers found that PPB was more potent than even ascorbic acid. In addition, PPB inhibited DNA damage caused by hydrogen peroxide, a common oxidant. Researchers believe PPB holds promise as an ingredient in the natural food industry.
5. Ecklonia cava ethanolic extracts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV2 microglia via the MAP kinase and NF-kB pathways
Jung, W.K., et al. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2008. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.11.041
Microglia, immune cells found in the central nervous system, are involved in inflammatory and neurotoxic processes when affected by disease or injury. When this happens to excess, it becomes a factor in neurodegenerative disease. Researchers looked at Ecklonia cava, known for its anti-inflammatory properties, to determine protective mechanisms that may lead to therapeutic treatment. They treated mouse brain cells with Ekclonia cava and then introduced a catalyst that normally provokes inflammatory response. After conducting various tests, researchers determined that the Ecklonia cava significantly inhibited inflammation. Researchers believe these results suggest potential applications of Ecklonia cava in the treatment of inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases.
6. Effect of phlorotannins isolated from Ecklonia cava on angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity
Wijesinghe, W., et al. Nutrition Research and Practice. 2011. 5 (2), 93-100.
Scientists have long known that one of the underlying causes of hypertension is the activity of angiotensin-I converting (ACE) enzyme. Brown algaes such as Ecklonia cava contain phlorotannin compounds that show potential as functional food ingredients. In this series of in vitro experiments, researchers examined the potential for Eklonia cava to act as an ACE inhibitor with the ultimate goal of lowering blood pressure. Researchers prepared five extracts of Ecklonia cava using five different solvents. Each extract was then tested for its potential as an ACE inhibitor. The extract that was prepared with ethanol was the most effective. Further experimentation revealed that dieckol, a phlorotannin produced by the ethanol-Eklonia cava extract, was responsible for the ACE inhibitor effect.
7. Protective efficacy of an Ecklonia cava extract used to treat transient focal ischemia of the rat brain
Kim, J.H., et al. Anatomy and Cell Biology. 2012. 45, 103-113.
Phlorotannins, which are polyphenols found only in brown algae, are known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In an in vivo study of rats, Ecklonia cava polyphenols were injected into rats and then transient focal cerebral ischemia were induced. Rats were then subjected to performance tests for a period of days. It was demonstrated that the Ecklonia cava treatment helped prevent a decline in the animals’ neurobehavioral tests. In vitro tests revealed promising findings as well; Ecklonia cava polyphenols conferred a neuroprotective effect on brain cells subjected to oxidative stress.
8. Dieckol isolated from Ecklonia cava protects against high glucose induced damage to rat insulinoma cells by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis
Lee, S.H., et al. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 2012. 76 (8), 1445-1451.
In this series of in vitro experiments, the polyphenol compound dieckol was isolated from Ecklonia cava algae. Researchers treated rat insulinoma cells (derived from beta cells of the pancreas) with glucose. Beta cells are sensitive to high glucose, and their exposure to it in this experiment reduced their viability, as was expected. In a dose dependent manner, cells also treated with dieckol were protected against the effects of glucose; the dieckol-treated cells had a 90% increase in viability. The cells had less lipid peroxidation, less reactive oxygen species (ROS), and less nitric oxide. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the glucose-exposed insulinoma cells was increased when treated with dieckol versus untreated cells. Researchers believe these findings may be of value in the treatment of hyperglycemia or diabetes.
9. Dieckol from Ecklonia cava regulates invasion of human fibrosarcoma cells and modulates MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression via NF-κB pathway
Chen, Z., et al. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011. Article ID 140462.
Dieckol, a polyphenol found in Ecklonia cava brown aglae, was examined for its effect on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and human cancer cells. (MMPs are enzymes that break down tissue in both normal physiological processes and disease processes.) In this study, dieckol was demonstrated to inhibit MMP-2 and MMP-9 by downregulating NF-kappa B, without affecting other important metabolic processes. NF-kappa B is a protein complex that, when it goes awry, is linked to the development of cancer and other diseases. Researchers concluded that dieckol may have the potential to help suppress the spread of cancer cells.
10. Inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease by phlorotannins from the brown alga Ecklonia cava
Ahn, M.J., et al. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2004. 27(4), 544-547.
In this in vitro study, researchers examined phlorotannins for their potential benefit in HIV treatment. Phlorotannins are polyphenols that are only found in brown algae. Two phlorotannins in particular were examined: 8,8’-bieckol and 8,4’’’-dieckol, both derived from Ecklonia cava. Further research revealed that bieckol was significantly more effective than dieckol. The 8,8’-bieckol inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, one of the ways in which the HIV virus affects human DNA (thus making it so difficult to treat). As a result of this study, researchers believe bieckol holds promise for HIV treatment and should be further investigated.
11. Phlorotannins in Ecklonia cava extract inhibit matrix metalloproteinase activity
Kim, M.M., et al. Life Sciences. 2006. 79, 1436-1443.
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) are enzymes that break down the body’s extracellular matrix in both normal and in disease processes. Substances that inhibit MMP may have potential benefits for treating diseases such as cancer, arthritis, chronic inflammation, and more. In this in vitro study, it was demonstrated that Ecklonia cava extract inhibits the activities of MMP-2, and MMP-9, two types of MMP enzymes, to varying degrees. Of special interest was the extract’s ability to inhibit the invasion of cancer cells. In addition, the extract was not toxic to healthy cells even at high doses. Researchers theorize that the phlorotannins found in Ecklonia cava are the active substance, but further research is needed.
12. Improvement of memory by dieckol and phlorofucofuroeckol in ethanol-treated mice: possible involvement of the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase
Myung, C.S., et al. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 2005. 28 (6), 691-698.
Ecklonia cava contains a class of polyphenols called phlorotannins. Two in particular, dieckol and phlorofucofuroeckol (PFF) were evaluated in this study for their effects on memory and cognitive function. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is involved in memory and brain processing speed, was of particular interest in this experiment. Mice were given an oral dose of dieckol or PFF, and then administered ethanol in order to alter levels of their brain neurotransmitters. Results were measured by giving mice a passive avoidance test and by measuring the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain. The dieckol and PFF increased levels of acetylcholine and improved memory in the test subjects. The dieckol and PFF also appeared to inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine.
13. Inhibitory effects of Ecklonia cava extract on high glucose-induced hepatic stellate cell activation
Yokogawa, K., et al. Marine Drugs. 2011. 9, 2793-2808.
In this in vitro study, researchers examined the effects of Ecklonia cava extract on liver cells involved in fibrosis (scarring) of the liver. Liver fibrosis is associated with obesity, diabetes, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Liver cells, also known as hepatic stellate cells or HSCs, were simultaneously given a high glucose treatment and Ecklonia cava extract. Ecklonia cava suppressed the scarring process that would be expected as a result of the glucose treatment. Other beneficial changes were also observed. Ecklonia cava extract quenched damaging oxidation, inhibited the decrease in intracellular glutathione levels, and inhibited potentially harmful cellular changes. The researchers concluded that Ecklonia cava may be helpful in the prevention of diabetes-related liver fibrosis.
14. Photochemoprevention of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice by brown algae polyphenols
Hwang, H., et al. International Journal of Cancer. 2006. 119, 2742-2749.
The polyphenols from various species of brown algae, including Ecklonia cava, have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory properties. Researchers evaluated the potential benefit of these polyphenols in protecting against skin cancer, which is associated with inflammation caused by chronic exposure to UVB (sunlight) radiation. Mice were given dietary polyphenols from brown algae and also treated topically. Then they were exposed to UVB radiation for a period of 26 weeks to induce skin cancer. Both the dietary and topically applied brown algae polyphenols reduced the number and volume of tumors compared to control groups. Researchers believe the polyphenols acted as COX-2 inhibitors and suppressed cell proliferation. In summary, the experiment demonstrated the ability of brown algae polyphenols to reduce inflammation caused by exposure to UVB radiation and thus protect against skin cancer.
15. Antioxidative properties of brown algae polyphenolics and their perspectives as chemopreventive agents against vascular risk factors
Kang, K., et al. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 2003. 26 (4), 286-293.
Researchers examined several polyphenolic compounds from brown algae, including Ecklonia cava. They used two different types of assessments to determine the compounds’ overall excellent antioxidant effects in vascular health. Additionally, in an in vivo experiment, the studied compounds were attracted to areas of damage in blood vessels that are most vulnerable to free radical damage and thus in need of antioxidant protection. Another demonstrated benefit was inhibition of oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL). Researchers conclude that the polyphenolics from brown algae, including Ecklonia cava, may be protective against damaging oxidative processes in blood vessels.
16. Inhibitory effects of brown algal phlorotannins on secretory phospholipase A2s, lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases
Shibata, T., et al. Journal of Applied Phycology. 2003. 15, 61-66.
In this study, researchers looked at the effect of phlorotannins from brown algae on substances in the body that promote inflammation, including secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), cyclooxygenases (COX) and lipoxygenases (LOX). While the study used phlorotannins isolated from the brown alga Eisenia bicyclis and not Ecklonia cava, it does focus on two compounds that are also found in the latter, bieckol and dieckol. The phlorotannins showed a marked ability to inhibit inflammation via the sPLA2 and LOX pathway, with much less effect on the COX pathway. Researchers conclude that phlorotannins from brown algae may have therapeutic benefit as anti-inflammatory foods or supplements.
17. Differentiation of human osteosarcoma cells by isolated phlorotannins is subtly linked to COX-2, iNOS, MMPs, and MAPK signaling: implication for chronic articular disease
Ryu, B., et al. Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2009. 179 (2-3), 192-201.
One characteristic of osteosarcoma, or bone cancer, is that bone cells stop differentiating (developing different functions). In this study, researchers isolated components of an extract of Ecklonia cava on osteosarcoma differentiation. This study demonstrated that the phlorotannins found in Ecklonia promote differentiation by increasing enzymatic activity, mineralization, and collagen formation in osteosarcoma cells. They also suppressed inflammation and enzymes that break down collagen or that are overactive in joint disease. Based on these discoveries, researchers believe that Ecklonia cava could also be useful to promote these same effects in chronic joint disease.
18. Effects of Ecklonia cava ethanolic extracts on airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in a murine asthma model: role of suppressor of cytokine signaling
Kim, S.K., et al. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy. 2008. 62 (5), 289-296.
In this study, researchers investigated the effects of Ecklonia cava on asthma in mice. Mice in whom an asthmatic reaction was induced displayed typical markers of the condition. Mice who were given Ecklonia cava extract prior to induction demonstrated significantly suppressed markers of an asthma attack. Researchers conclude that Ecklonia cava is effective in treating asthma in mice.
19. Immunomodulatory effects of an enzymatic extract from Ecklonia cava on murine splenocytes
Ahn, G., et al. Marine Biotechnology (NY). 2008. 10 (3), 278-289.
In this study, researchers looked at the effects of Ecklonia cava on splenocytes (white blood cells from the spleen). When mice were given an extract of Ecklonia cava, the number of splenocytes and other types of white blood cells increased. Further testing revealed that pro-inflammatory responses (such as the production of Th1 cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma) were dampened while anti-inflammatory responses, such as IL-10 and IL-4, were more active. Researchers conclude that Ecklonia cava has potential as a treatment for immune system disease.
20. Ecklonia cava extract suppresses the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fc epsilon RI expression
Shim, S.Y., et al. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2009. 47 (3), 555-560.
Researchers examined the effects of Ecklonia cava extract on Fc epsilon RI, an antibody associated with IgE (an allergy response) in human basophilic KU812 cells. Tests demonstrated that in a dose-dependent manner, Ecklonia extract diminished the expression of Fc epsilon RI. The extract also weakened the bond between IgE and Fc epsilon RI and lessened the release of histamine. This study gave researchers new insights into the mechanisms by which Ecklonia extract diminishes allergic response.