Chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris)
Fresh water bodies all over the world.
Protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, chlorophyll, vitamins, minerals.
Chlorella is a genus of microscopic, single-celled green algae, measuring just two to eight microns in diameter. It is over 2 billion years old, and one of the earliest forms of life on earth containing a cellular nucleus. There are approximately ten to twenty different species of chlorella found in fresh water bodies worldwide. It often coexists with large masses of phytoplankton, and because it can thrive on fewer nutrients, it is often found in waters where little else will grow. Chlorella is one of the fastest growing life forms known, capable of dividing to form four separate single-celled organisms in a 24-hour period.
Chlorella has a high protein content. It is about 55-67% protein1 and includes 19 of the 22 amino acids, including all eight essential amino acids. The other constituents of chlorella are chlorophyll (1-4%), fiber (9-18%), vitamins, and minerals.2 Its nutritional profile is stellar: Chlorella contains most of the B vitamins, vitamins C and E, omega-3 fatty acids, beta carotene, and chlorophyll. It also contains a number of essential and trace minerals, including calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, and zinc.3
It was first discovered by a Dutch biologist, Martinus Biejerinck, in 1890, when microscopes first became available. It was not until the 1940s and 1950s that this alga came under more widespread study. It was proposed as a possible food source around that time, but its strong cell wall made it difficult to break down and digest. It was not until the 1970s that technology was developed to overcome this challenge. Since that time, chlorella has become a popular functional food and nutritional supplement, especially in Japan. Chlorella was even studied as a part of the 1960s Soviet space program. It was used in experiments recycling carbon dioxide into oxygen.4
Medical researchers, always on the lookout for promising weapons in the battle against cancer, have explored the use of this alga as a potential anti-cancer treatment. In a recent animal study, researchers looked at the effect of Chlorella vulgaris on liver cancer in rats. They found that chlorella activated proteins that cause cancer cells to die and deactivated the proteins that prevent cancer cells from dying.5 In another study involving Chlorella vulgaris, researchers transferred a gene from the algae into human breast cancer cells. The gene is a precursor to omega-3 fatty acids; when transferred, it caused a more favorable fatty acid ratio to develop in the host cells. Optimal fatty acid ratios can lessen cancer cell growth and promote cancer cell death.6 An in vitro study involving liver cancer cells showed that chlorella may be useful in fighting cancer by stimulating proteins that cause cancer cell DNA damage and death.7
Chlorella has also been shown to enhance immune function. In one clinical trial, men who took chlorella for four weeks showed an increase in salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) concentration.8 SIgA is an antibody that plays a part in immune system defenses. Chlorella also has antibacterial properties. In one study, mice who were given chlorella in advance of infection had far greater survival rates and shorter recovery times than control mice.9 In a clinical study involving patients with fibromyalgia, an autoimmune disorder, patients given chlorella supplements showed measurable decreases in fibromyalgia pain symptoms.10
Liver protection is another area in which chlorella may be useful. In a clinical trial involving patients suffering from chronic hepatitis C, chlorella showed great promise. Key markers of liver function improved, as did patient perceptions of energy and well being while using chlorella.11 Two rat studies have demonstrated chlorella’s ability to detoxify harmful substances. In the first, researchers found that the chlorophyll from chlorella helps to prevent toxic chemicals from being absorbed into the digestive tract.12 In the second study, researchers found that chlorella not only prevented absorption of dangerous chemicals into the digestive tract, but also helped detoxify the body of chemicals present in the tissues.13
Chlorella may also be of benefit in addressing the many lifestyle diseases so prevalent today. Hypertension, left untreated, can lead to stroke. Researchers discovered that rats fed chlorella had lower blood pressure, lower total cholesterol, and fewer strokes.14 Reseachers point to chlorella’s carotenoids, which have an antoxidant effect, and arginine, known for its vascular benefits, as possible reasons for these results. Chlorella researchers also have also looked at this alga’s effect on lipid metabolism. In one rat study, for example, researchers demonstrated that Chlorella vulgaris may help prevent dyslipidemia (an abnormal amount of fats in the blood).15 Another rat study showed that chlorella reduces total cholesterol by helping the liver to break it down more effectively.16
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits of chlorella have also been studied. A recent study involving atherogenic mice showed that chlorella eased oxidative stress, most likely by lessening oxidation, increasing antioxidant activity, and suppressing inflammatory processes.17 In another study, researchers focused on violaxanthin, a carotenoid found in chlorella. It functions as an anti-inflammatory, acting upon several different metabolic pathways.18
As the field of anti-aging research continues to gain steam, researchers are turning to chlorella to discover its potential anti-aging benefits. UVB skin damage, a classic sign of aging, can benefit from chlorella. Researchers discovered that when UVB-damaged skin cells are treated with chlorella, the breakdown of collagen is greatly reduced. UVB damage normally inhibits elastin activity (elastin helps skin retain its shape and elasticity); chlorella protected elastin’s normal function.19 Another study showed that chlorella helps protect and repair skin cells from age-associated damage by protecting telomere length and supporting enzyme activity.20 Even age-related memory decline can benefit from chlorella. Mice who consumed DHA-fortified chlorella for two months performed better in memory-based maze tasks than mice who did not.21
Researchers continue to investigate chlorella for a wide variety of potential health benefits. In one study involving rats, for example, researchers determined that chlorella could help heal intestines and promote better intestinal function in cases of short bowel syndrome. (This condition is a result of surgical removal of part of the intestines and can cause diarrhea, malabsorption, and malnutrition.)
Chlorella is used in Japan as a food ingredient and is commonly found in fortified noodles and wasabi.22 There, it is treated as a nutrient-dense food source, and more Japanese people use it than Americans use vitamin C.23 Beth M. Ley, author of Chlorella, The Ultimate Green Food, points out that because of its popularity in Japan this alga is often referred to as “the green gem of the Orient.”
1 Bishop, W.M., and Zubeck, H.M. Evaluation of microalgae for use as nutraceuticals and nutritional supplements. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 2012. 2:147.doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000147.
3 Ley, Beth M., Chlorella, The Ultimate Green Food. 2003. BL Publications, Detroit Lakes, MN, page 14.
4 http://www.biospheresystems.com/biospheres.html , accessed June 11, 2013.
5 Mohd Azami, E.S., et al. Chlorella vulgaris triggers apoptosis in hepatocarcinogenesis-induced rats. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B. 2009. 10 (1), 14-21.
6 Xue, M., et al. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2012. 45 (12), 1141-1149.
7 Yusof, Y. A. M., et al. Hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris induced DNA damage and apoptosis. Clinics. 2010. 65 (12), 1371-1377.
8 Otsuki, T., et al. Salivary secretory immunoglobulin-a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized crossover study. Nutrition Journal. 2011. 10:91.
9 Tanaka, K., et al. Augmentation of host defense by a unicellular green alga,Chlorella vulgaris, to Escherichia coli infection. Infection and Immunity. 1986. 53 (2), 267-271.
10 Merchant, R., et al. Nutritional supplementation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa for patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a pilot study. Phytotherapy Research. 2000. 14, 167-173.
11 Azocar, J, and Diaz, A. Efficacy and safety of Chlorella supplementation in adultswith chronic hepatitis C virus infection. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2013. 19 (7), 1085-1090.
12 Morita, K., et al. Chlorophyll derived from Chlorella inhibits dioxin absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and accelerates dioxin excretion in rats. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2001. 109 (3), 289-294.
13 Morita, K. Chlorella accelerates dioxin excretion in rats. The Journal of Nutrition. 1999. 129, 1731-1736.
14 Sansawa, H., et al. Effect of Chlorella and its fractions on blood pressure, cerebral stroke lesions, and life-span in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology. 2006. 52, 457-466.
15 Lee, H.S., et al. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet. Nutrition Research and Practice. 2008. 2 (4), 204-210.
16 Shibata, S., et al. Hypocholesterolemic mechanism of Chlorella: Chlorella and its indigestible fraction enhance hepatic cholesterol catabolism through up-regulation of cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase in rats. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 2007. 71 (4), 916-925.
17 Lee, H.S., et al. Attenuating effect of Chlorella supplementation on oxidative stress and NF Kappa-B activation in peritoneal macrophages and liver of C57BL/6 mice fed on an atherogenic diet. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 2003. 67 (10), 2083-2090.
18 Soontornchaiboon, W., et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of violaxanthin isolated from microalga Chlorella ellipsoidea in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2012. 35 (7), 1137-1144.
19 Shih, M.F., and Chern, J.Y. Potential protective effect of fresh grown unicellular green algae component (resilient factor) against PMA- and UVB-induced MMP1 expression in skin fibroblasts. European Journal of Dermatology. 2008. 18 (3), 303-307.
20 Makpol, S., et al. Chlorella vulgaris modulates hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and telomere shortening of human fibroblasts derived from different aged individuals. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines. 2009. 6 (4) 560-572.
21 Sugimoto, Y., et al. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid-fortified Chlorella vulgaris strain CK22 on the radial maze performance in aged mice. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2002. 25 (8), 1090-1092.
22 Bewicke, D., and Potter, B. Chlorella: The Emerald Food. 1993. Ronin Publishing, Berkeley, CA, page7.
23 Ley, Beth M., Chlorella, The Ultimate Green Food. 2003. BL Publications, Detroit Lakes, MN.
1. Modulation of cell cycle profile by Chlorella vulgaris prevents replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblasts
Saberbaghi, T, et al. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013, Article ID 780504.
In this study, researchers treated specialized human cells, called diploid fibroblasts, with Chlorella vulgaris. Fibroblasts are the cells in connective tissue that divide to form collagen. Fibroblasts replicate themselves, but over time and with age they cease to do so. The researchers treated fibroblasts of varying ages with a hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris and then assessed cellular DNA. Cells that were untreated had greater DNA damage and more cell death. Cells of all ages that received the chlorella treatment had less DNA damage and cell death. The results suggest that chlorella may be of use as a potential anti-aging compound.
2. Chlorella vulgaris modulates hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and telomere shortening of human fibroblasts derived from different aged individuals
Makpol, S., et al. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines. 2009. 6 (4) 560-572.
In a study using fibroblast cells from two groups of people (young and old), researchers looked at the effects of Chlorella vulgaris on markers of aging. They induced oxidative stress in all the cells, also treating some cells (some before and some after inducing oxidative stress) with chlorella extract. Pre-treated cells had significantly less DNA damage. Post-treated cells showed evidence of repair. Cells not treated with chlorella had shortened telomere length and a decline in enzyme (telomerase) activity. Chlorella-treated cells did not experience telomere shortening or decline in telomerase activity. Researchers conclude that chlorella may help protect and repair cells from age-associated damage.
3. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid-fortified Chlorella vulgaris strain CK22 on the radial maze performance in aged mice
Sugimoto, Y., et al. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2002. 25 (8), 1090-1092.
DHA is an omega-3 fatty acid that has long been known for its brain health benefits. Earlier studies suggest that DHA-fortified chlorella shows stronger pharmacological effects than DHA in other forms. In this mouse study, researchers looked at the effects of dietary DHA-fortified chlorella on two types of memory. Mice who consumed the DHA-fortified chlorella for two months prior to the experiment showed enhanced short-term memory performance in maze tasks.
4. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet
Lee, H.S., et al. Nutrition Research and Practice. 2008. 2 (4), 204-210.
In this rat study, groups of rats were fed normal and high fat diets, with subgroups of each consuming varying amounts of Chlorella vulgaris. The regulated diets lasted for nine weeks. High-fat diet rats who consumed more chlorella had healthier blood and liver markers than high-fat diet rats who ate none. Both the normal and high fat diet rats who consumed more chlorella chlorella excreted more total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol than rats who consumed no Chlorella. Researchers conclude that Chlorella vulgaris may help prevent dyslipidemia.
5. Salivary secretory immunoglobulin-a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized crossover study
Otsuki, T., et al. Nutrition Journal. 2011. 10:91.
In this clinical crossover study, researchers examined whether chlorella increases salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), which is part of the body’s immune defenses. Fifteen men took either placebo tablets or chlorella tablets for four weeks, took nothing for twelve weeks, and then switched to the other kind of tablets. Pre- and post-trial saliva samples revealed that chlorella significantly boosts salivary SIgA concentration, possibly helping to enhance immune function.
6. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells
Xue, M., et al. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2012. 45 (12), 1141-1149.
Chlorella vulgaris contains a precursor, the CvFad3 gene, to omega-3 fatty acids, which have long been known for their many health benefits. In this study, researchers examined whether this gene could be expressed in human breast cancer cells in order to affect the cell’s fatty acid composition. After the gene was transferred into breast cancer cells, their fatty acid ratio changed from a 6:1 ratio of omega-6:omega-3 to a more balanced and favorable 1:1 ratio. Researchers conclude that when the CvFad3 gene is expressed it promotes a more favorable fatty acid ratio, which can lessen cancer cell proliferation and promote cancer cell death.
7. Nutritional supplementation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa for patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a pilot study
Merchant, R., et al. Phytotherapy Research. 2000. 14, 167-173.
In a clinical study chlorella supplements were given to 18 fibromyalgia patients with moderately severe symptoms. Symptoms were evaluated using defined tender points as measured on a tender point index scale. Study participants consumed specified amounts of tablet and liquid chlorella supplements daily for two months, and patient symptoms were then reassessed. Overall, study participants experienced a 22% decrease in pain. Researchers conclude that chlorella supplements may be helpful for some fibromyalgia patients.
8. Hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris induced DNA damage and apoptosis
Yusof, Y. A. M., et al. Clinics. 2010. 65 (12), 1371-1377.
In this in vitro study, researchers looked at the effects of Chlorella vulgaris on liver cancer cells. The researchers treated liver cancer cells and normal cancer cells with a hot water extract of chlorella. They then looked at apoptosis (cell death) rate and DNA damage. The number of cancerous cells were decreased and DNA damage to the cancer cells increased. In addition, chlorella induced cell death in 70% of the cancer cells, compared to just 15% of the normal cells. Proteins that cause cell death were more active in the cancer cells as well. Researchers conclude that chlorella thwarts cancer by stimulating proteins that cause cancer cell DNA damage and death.
9. Efficacy and safety of chlorella supplementation in adults with chronic hepatitis C virus infection
Azocar, J, and Diaz, A. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2013. 19 (7), 1085-1090.
In this clinical trial, eighteen patients with chronic hepatitis C were given chlorella supplements for twelve weeks. Few, if any, side effects were reported. Blood tests taken at the beginning and the end of the study period showed positive results. ALT levels in 84% of the patients declined significantly. 69% showed a decline in AST levels, but those declines were not statistically significant. (Elevated ALT and AST levels indicate impaired liver function.) 76% of patients reported improved energy levels and 46% reported they felt better in general.
10. Chlorella vulgaris triggers apoptosis in hepatocarcinogenesis-induced rats
Mohd Azami, E.S., et al. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B. 2009. 10 (1), 14-21.
In this study, researchers looked at the effect of Chlorella vulgaris on liver cancer in rats. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is one of the body’s ways of removing carcinogenic cells. This study focused on chlorella’s effect on the expression of the proteins that regulate when cells die. Rats were divided into various groups with different diets, one of which induced liver cancer. The groups were then given different doses of chlorella. Examination of the rats’ liver tissues showed that chlorella helped protect them. The more chlorella rats consumed, the less a protein called Bcl-2 was expressed. This protein inhibits apoptosis. At the same time, a protein called caspase 8 was expressed more. That protein increases apoptosis. In other words, chlorella activated the proteins that caused cancer cells to die, and suppressed the proteins that prevented cancer cells from dying.
11. Hypocholesterolemic mechanism of Chlorella: Chlorella and its indigestible fraction enhance hepatic cholesterol catabolism through up-regulation of cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase in rats
Shibata, S., et al. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 2007. 71 (4), 916-925.
Researchers studied chlorella to determine how it affects the metabolism of cholesterol in the liver. They evaluated the effects of chlorella powder on mice eating various diets, measuring markers such as messenger RNA, cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), HMG-CoA reductase, serum and liver cholesterol levels, and more. An analysis of the data suggests that chlorella powder reduces cholesterol by up-regulating the expression of CYP7A1 in the liver, which in turn more effectively breaks down cholesterol.
12. Chlorophyll derived from chlorella inhibits dioxin absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and accelerates dioxin excretion in rats
Morita, K., et al. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2001. 109 (3), 289-294.
In this in vivo study, researchers fed either a regular diet or a diet containing chlorophyll from chlorella to four groups of rats. The rats were also fed either dioxin or dibenzofuran, two extremely toxic chemicals. The more chlorophyll the rats were given, the more toxins they excreted. The remaining toxins detectable in the rats were inversely related to the amount of chlorophyll they had consumed. Researchers conclude that chlorophyll from chlorella helps to prevent dioxin and dibenzofuran from being absorbed into the gastrointestinal tract.
13. Chlorella accelerates dioxin excretion in rats
Morita, K. The Journal of Nutrition. 1999. 129, 1731-1736.
In a series of two experiments, researchers demonstrated that chlorella can aid in the detox of harmful chemicals. Rats were fed a diet that included rice oil containing dioxin compounds. Some were also given chlorella. The rats who ate chlorella excreted up to 12 times more dioxin compounds than those who ate no chlorella. Researchers also determined that not only did chlorella prevent dioxin absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, it also helped to detoxify dioxin that was present in the tissues. The researchers concluded that chlorella may be useful as a detox agent in humans as well.
14. Attenuating effect of chlorella supplementation on oxidative stress and NF Kappa-B activation in peritoneal macrophages and liver of C57BL/6 mice fed on an atherogenic diet
Lee, H.S., et al. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 2003. 67 (10), 2083-2090.
In this animal study, researchers examined whether chlorella could ease oxidative stress in atherogenic mice. All mice were given an atherogenic diet, but two groups were also given chlorella in lesser and greater amounts. Researchers then measured antioxidant and inflammatory markers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, AST, ALT, and NFkB (nuclear factor kappa b). The results demonstrated that chlorella eased oxidative stress, most likely by lessening oxidation, increasing antioxidant activity, and suppressing inflammatory processes.
15. Augmentation of host defense by a unicellular green alga, Chlorella vulgaris, to Escherichia coli infection
Tanaka, K., et al. Infection and Immunity. 1986. 53 (2), 267-271.
Researchers looked at the protective effects of Chlorella vulgaris against E. coli infection in mice. Mice were given extracts of chlorella in varying doses one to seven days in advance of infection. E. coli infection was then introduced by injection. Mice who received the chlorella had significantly greater survival rates and cleared the bacteria from their spleens more quickly than untreated mice. The most effective dose of chlorella was 50 mg/kg of body weight administered 24 hours before infection.
16. Anti-inflammatory effects of violaxanthin isolated from microalga Chlorella ellipsoidea in RAW 264.7 macrophages
Soontornchaiboon, W., et al. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2012. 35 (7), 1137-1144.
In this in vitro study researchers isolated violaxanthin, a carotenoid, from Chlorella ellipsoidea and exposed it to mouse macrophage cells to study its anti-inflammatory effects. They used a variety of assay tests to evaluate its effects. The violaxanthin suppressed nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, a vasodilator. Researchers also believe it suppresses the NF-kB pathway (which is associated with immune response) and may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect. Regardless of the mechanism, researchers believe that violaxanthin from chlorella may be useful in treating inflammation.
17. Effects of microalgae chlorella species crude extracts on intestinal adaptation in experimental short bowel syndrome
Kerem, M., et al. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2008. 14 (28), 4512-4517.
In this rat study, researchers looked at the effects of chlorella extract on animals with short bowel syndrome. (In patients with certain bowel diseases, part of the intestines must be removed. Short bowel syndrome can result; symptoms include diarrhea, malabsorption, and malnutrition.) The researchers performed surgery on rats and removed large portions of their intestines. The rats were then divided into groups and administered different nutritional programs. They were then euthanized and further tests performed. Rats who received chlorella extract as part of their nutritional program had healthier markers (e.g., villus lengthening and intestinal proliferation) than rats who did not receive chlorella. The results indicate that chlorella may be helpful in healing and may promote better intestinal function for those with short bowel syndrome.
18. Potential protective effect of fresh grown unicellular green algae component (resilient factor) against PMA- and UVB-induced MMP1 expression in skin fibroblasts
Shih, M.F., and Chern, J.Y. European Journal of Dermatology. 2008. 18 (3), 303-307.
In this in vitro study, researchers looked at the effects of chlorella on key markers of sun-induced skin damage. They induced damage typical of normal aging on skin fibroblast cells while also treating those cells with an extract of either chlorella, vitamin C, or vitamin E. When chlorella was used, the markers of skin aging were significantly reduced; most significantly, MMP (matrix metalloproteinase, which breaks down collagen) activity was reduced. When aging damage was induced in the cells, the amount of elastin (a connective tissue protein which helps skin retain shape and elasticity) decreased; chlorella mitigated this effect. Researchers also believe the chlorella increased the expression of messenger RNA, boosting the production of collagen. Overall, researchers were satisfied that chlorella appears to protect against UVB skin damage.
19. Effect of Chlorella and its fractions on blood pressure, cerebral stroke lesions, and life-span in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats
Sansawa, H., et al. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology. 2006. 52, 457-466.
Powdered Chlorella regularis, including lipid and residual fractions, were given to groups of rats as part of their diet; a control group received no chlorella. Over a period of weeks, researchers looked at a variety of health outcomes. chlorella-fed rats had lower blood pressure, lower total cholesterol, fewer strokes, and longer survival rates compared to control rats. Analysis revealed that the lipid fraction of chlorella contained carotenoids, which had an antioxidant effect, and phospholipids that were associated with collagen and elastin activity. The residual fraction contained arginine, a compound known for its vascular benefits. Researchers believe the benefits of chlorella are due to the synergistic activities of the lipid and residual fractions.
20. Evaluation of microalgae for use as nutraceuticals and nutritional supplements
Bishop, W.M., and Zubeck, H.M. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 2012. 2:147. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000147
In this review article, the authors looked at a variety of microalgae for their nutritional and therapeutic potential. Chlorella has been demonstrated to detoxify metals and pesticides from the body. It contains lutein, a carotenoid, which supports eye health by mitigating macular degeneration; it may also help prevent cataracts. Chlorella extracts have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumoric properties. It also helps lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Chlorella boosts immune activity and has been shown to speed wound healing. It also shows benefit for symptom relief for sufferers of fibromyalgia and ulcerative colitis.